Enfield served as the County Seat of Edgecombe County until the formation of Halifax County in 1759. That same year, Enfield was also the site of the "Enfield Riot" which was one of the first colonial protests against British rule.
In the late 19th century, Enfield established a tobacco market. Overtime, tobacco gave way to peanuts and Enfield was home to the world's largest raw peanut market for some time. the town celebrates peanuts annually with the Enfield Peanut Festival which is held the first Saturday of October.